Reparations are treated as the cure for inequality — they are not (7-3-19)
Reparations won’t change the past. What about the future? (7-2-19) Con article
Reparations economics 101 (6-23-19)
There is no middle ground on reparations (6-18-19)
Balancing the Ledger on Juneteenth (6-18-19)
The reparations debate (6-25-19)
Would reparations for slavery be constitutional? (2019). They left one out: Would reparations be constitutional?
Maybe not. Any financial benefits awarded to African Americans in compensation for historical discrimination would collide with well-established Supreme Court precedents.
That doctrine emerged out of two decades of affirmative-action cases, from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s, during which a center-right court wrestled with how much “reverse discrimination” against whites to allow for the sake of correcting black America’s historical disadvantages.
Calculating Reparations — Provides an explanation how the total cost of unpaid labor is $50 trillion.
Compensation for slavery — This is a classroom lesson plan. It could be useful for starting a discussion.
From oppression to Democracy: An argument for reparations from an African American perspective. This dissertation makes a long case for reparations and is important reading for the topic. Although it is long (over 200 pages) and becomes quite redundant in some areas, it does review the major arguments in favor of reparations, offers criticisms of some of them, and offers a thorough justification for another argument in favor of reparations — slavery and discrimination have denied African Americans the opportunity to develop as whole individuals by excluding them from society. The author relies heavily on the work of Jurgen Habermas to support his arguments.
Reparations: Cutting through the nonsense — This author opposes reparations, but he answers the argument that slavery benefited current African Americans
Fullinwider, Fullinwider. (2004). “The Case for Reparations,” in Reparations for Slavery: A Reader, edited by Ronald P. Salzberger and Mary Turck. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, 148.
Lyons, David. (2004) “Corrective Justice, Equal Opportunity, and the Legacy of Slavery and Jim Crow,” The Boston University School of Law Working Paper Series, Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper No. 03-15 (gated, subscription required). Argues for a reparation that will correct for a loss of economic opportunity caused by slavery and other forms of discrimination. Free excerpt
Privatizing reparations –A specific proposal for reparations. Compared to other proposals, it is relatively modest.
The case for reparations. This very popular article published in the June 2014 edition of the Atlantic provides incredible detail related to the racist exclusions blacks have experienced both during and since slavery. Although the author doesn’t have a specific proposal for reparations, he argues they should be considered. Many of the examples of harms in this article could provide persuasive fuel for many Pro teams. I think it should be required reading on the topic.
Pro — Litigation
Pro — Reparations Superfund
Reparations Superfund — Argues for a Superfund that will be used to provide educational and health opportunities in population areas disadvantaged by slavery’s consequences.
The wrenching reparations question (2019).In the end, most discussion of reparations seems to boil down to little more than traditional tax-and-spend policies, prettified with new rationales. But government social-welfare programs have a dismal track record when it comes to bridging the racial divide and empowering African Americans. Doubling down on failed programs is not really making reparations.
Clearly, this country needs to do more to make up for its history of racism. There are policies that would go a long way toward overcoming America’s legacy of racism and would benefit African Americans in substantial ways. Those policies range from criminal-justice reform to school choice to an end to racially motivated zoning. But unless they are willing to answer some hard questions, the Democratic candidates should not be allowed to pretend that reparations are one of those policies.
Reparations are not the answer (6-29-19)
The case for and against slave reparations — Despite the title, this is mostly con evidence
“African Americans and Movements for Reparations: Past, Present, and Future.” Journal of African American History 97 (Winter-Spring, 2011). Special issue dedicated to the memory and scholarly legacy of Dr. Ronald W. Walters.
INTRODUCTION – AFRICAN AMERICANS AND MOVEMENTS FOR REPARATIONS: FROM EX-SLAVE PENSIONS TO THE REPARATIONS SUPERFUND
V.P. Franklin … 1
ENCOUNTERING THE EX-SLAVE REPARATIONS MOVEMENT FROM THE GRAVE: THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL AND NATIONAL LIBERTY PARTY, 1901-1907
James M. Davidson … 13
“WE ARE DEMANDING $500 MILLION IN REPARATIONS”: THE BLACK MANIFESTO, MAINLINE RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS, AND BLACK ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Elaine Allen Lechtreck … 39
LESSONS IN HEARING HUMAN AND DIVINE DISCONTENT: THE BLACK MANIFESTO AND EPISCOPAL LEADERS AND CONGREGATIONS IN THE DETROIT AREA
Keith A. Dye … 72
COMMUNITY BENEFITS AGREEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC INJUSTICES
Emma T. Lucas-Darby … 92
THE IMPACT OF SLAVERY ON 20th and 21st CENTURY BLACK PROGRESS
Ronald W. Walters … 110
ESSAY REVIEW – I
REPARATIONS DEMANDS FOR THE NEW MILLENIUM
Pero Gaglo Dagbovie … 131
ARICAN AMERICANS AND REPARATIONS: BOOK REVIEWS
Douglas A. Blackmon, SLAVERY BY ANOTHER NAME: THE RE-ENSLAVEMENT OF BLACK AMERICANS FROM THE CIVIL WAR TO WORLD WAR II
Albert S. Broussard … 141
James Loewen, SUNDOWN TOWNS: A HIDDEN DIMENSION OF AMERICAN RACISM
Greta de Jong … 145
Elliot Jaspin, BURIED IN THE BITTER WATERS: THE HIDDEN HISTORY OF RACIAL CLEANSING IN AMERICA
Clarence Lang … 148
Beryl Satter, FAMILY PROPERTIES: RACE, REAL ESTATE, AND THE EXPLOITATION OF BLACK URBAN AMERICA
John H. Barnhill … 149
David M. P. Freund, COLORED PROPERTY: STATE POLICY AND WHITE RACIAL POLITICS IN SUBURBAN AMERICA
Hilary J. Moss … 153
Charles P. Henry, LONG OVERDUE: THE POLITICS OF RACIAL REPARATIONS
James G. Ryan … 156
John Torpey, MAKING WHOLE WHAT HAS BEEN SMASHED: ON REPARATIONS POLITICS
Gayle T. Tate … 158
ESSAY REVIEW – II
BLUEPRINTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN YOUTH
Clyde C. Robertson … 163
Douglas R. Egerton, DEATH OR LIBERTY: AFRICAN AMERICANS AND REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA
Jessica Millward … 174
Judith A. Carney and Richard Nicholas Rosomoff, IN THE SHADOW OF SLAVERY: AFRICA’S BOTANICAL LEGACY IN THE ATLANTIC WORLD
Kellie Carter Jackson … 176
Eric Foner, THE FIERY TRIAL: ABRAHAM LICOLN AND AMERICAN SLAVERY
Larry Greene … 178
Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, eds., THE GREAT TASK BEFORE US: RECONSTRUCTION AS AMERICA’S CONTINUING CIVIL WAR
Bertis English … 180
Christopher Waldrep, JURY DISCRIMINATION: THE SUPREME COURT, PUBLIC OPINION, AND A GRASSROOTS FIGHT FOR RACIAL EQUALITY IN MISSISSIPPI
Amos Jones … 184
Michael B. Boston, THE BUSINESS STRATEGY OF BOOKER T. WASHINGTON: ITS DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
Marcus Anthony Allen … 187
Karl Hagstrom Miller, SEGREGATING SOUND: INVENTING FOLK AND POP MUSIC IN THE AGE OF JIM CROW
Korey Bowers Brown … 189
J. Todd Moye, FREEDOM FLYERS: THE TUSKEGEE AIRMEN OF WORLD WAR II
Keith Mann … 191
Gerald Horne, MAU MAU IN HARLEM? THE UNITED STATES AND THE LIBERATION OF KENYA
Beverly Grier … 193
Katherine Mellen Charron, FREEDOM’S TEACHER: THE LIFE OF SEPTIMA CLARK
Michael Fultz … 195
Zain Abdullah, BLACK MECCA: THE AFRICAN MUSLIMS OF HARLEM
Courtney Lyons … 197
Peter J. Paris, ed., RELIGION AND POVERTY: PAN-AFRICAN PERSPECTIVES
Youseef J. Carter … 200
K.Wailoo, K. M. O’Neill, J. Dowd, and R. Anglin, eds., KATRINA’S IMPRINT: RACE AND VULNERABILITY IN AMERICA
Sharon Pierson … 202
Ronald W. Walters, FREEDOM IS NOT ENOUGH: BLACK VOTERS, BLACK CANDIDATES, AND AMERICAN PRESIDENTIAL POLITICS
Daryl A. Carter … 204
Allen, Robert L. “Past Due: The African American Quest for Reparations.” Black Scholar 28 (Summer 1998): 2-17. Link to gated article
America, Richard F. Paying the Social Debt: What White America Owes Black America. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. (link to book @ Amazon)
_____. “Reparations and Public Policy.” Review of Black Political Economy 26 (Winter 1999): 77-83. (link to gated article)
_____. “Reparations and the Competitive Advantage of Inner Cities.” Review of Black Political Economy 24 (Fall 1995-Winter 1996): 193-206.
_____. “The Theory of Restitution: The African American Case.” In Boston, Thomas D., ed. A Different Vision. Volume 2. Race and public policy. New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 154-62
_____., ed. The Wealth of Races: the Present Value of Benefits from Past Injustices. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Ards, Angela. “Payment for Past Wrongs.” Colorlines: Race, Culture, Action 4 (Fall 2001): 20-22.
Baraka, Amiri. “The Case for Reparations.” Black Collegian 29 (October 1998): 26+
Barkan E. “Payback Time: Restitution and the Moral Economy of Nations. Tikkun 11 (September 1996): 52-57.
Berry, Mary Frances. “In Search of Callie House and the Origins of the Modern Reparations Movement.” Journal of African American History 91 (Summer 2006): 323-327. (gated article)
Bittker, Boris I. The Case for Black Reparations. New York: Random House, 1973. (link to 2003 edition @ Amazon)
Bolner, James. “Toward a Theory of Racial Reparations.” Phylon 29 (1968): 41-47. (link to gated article)
Brock, Gregory J., et al. “State of the Art: The Cost of Being Black-White Americans’ Perceptions and the Question of Reparations.” Du Bois Review 3 (September 2006): 261-297.
Brooks, Roy L. Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Link to e-book version available for purchase.
_____., ed. When Sorry Isn’t Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice. New York: New York University Press, 1999. (link to ebook)
Browne, Robert S. “Achieving Parity through Reparations.” In America, Richard F., ed. The Wealth of Races: the Present Value of Benefits from Past Injustices. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990, pp. 199-206.
_____. “The Economic Basis for Reparations to Black America.” Review of Black Political Economy 21 (Winter 1993): 99-110.
_____. “The Economic Case for Reparations to Black America.” American Economic Review 62 (1972): 39-46.
Burroughs, Todd Steven. “1921 Tulsa Race Riot Survivors Denied Reparations.” Crisis 112 (July-August 2005): 11+. Link to gated reparations
Bush, Lawrence and Jeffrey Dekro. “Jews and the Black Reparations Campaign.” Tikkun 15 (July 2000): 12-.
Campo, Shelly, M. Somjen Frazer, Teresa Mastin. “In Black and White: Coverage of U.S. Slave Reparations by the Mainstream Black Press.” Howard Journal of Communications 16 (July-September 2005): 201-223.
_____. “Predicting and Explaining Public Opinion Regarding U.S. Slavery Reparations.” Howard Journal of Communications 15 (April-June 2004): 115-130.
Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita. “Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations.” New Politics 8 (Summer 2001): 46-64.
Chisolm, Tunneen E. “Sweep Around Your Own Front Door: Examining the Argument for Legislative African American Reparations.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 147 (January 1999): 677+.
Collins, Chuck and Dedrick Muhammad. “Race, Wealth and the Commons.” Poverty & Race 16 (May-June 2007): 3-7.
Dawson, Michael C. “Reparations: Justice and Greed in Black and White.” Du Bois Review 1 (March 2004): 47-91. (link to gated articles)
Dotzler, Robert J. “Getting to Reparations: A Response to Fein.” Sociological Practice 2 (2000): 177-182.
Dymski, Gary A. “Illegal Seizure and Market Disadvantage Approaches to Restitution: A Comparison of the Japanese American and African Cases.” Review of Black Political Economy 27 (2000): 49-80.
“Florida Urged to Pay Victims of ’23 Race Riot.” New York Times, March 23, 1994, section B, page 8, column 4. Discussion of reparations for destruction of town of Rosewood.
Gonales, Patrisia and Roberto Rodrigue. “America Closed for Reparations.” Progressive Populist 6 (August 1/15, 2000): 18+.
Harrington, Michael and Arnold S. Kaufman. “Black Reparations: Two Views.” Dissent 16 (1969): 317-320.
Henry, Charles P. “The Politics of Racial Reparations.” Journal of Black Studies 34 (November 2003): 131-152.
Hess, Penny and Omali Yeshitela. Overturning the Culture of Violence. St. Petersburg, FL: Burning Spear Uhuru Publications, 2000.
Hutchinson, Earl Ofari and Delores Bundy. “The Touchy Question of Reparations.” Upscale 11 (May 2000): 14-15.
Jeffries, Judson L. “Juneteenth, Black Texans and the Case for Reparations.” Negro Educational Review 55 (April-July 2004): 107-115.
Jones, Daryl. “Address to the Black Reparations and Self-Determination Conference.” Vital Issues 9 (Winter 1999): 72-76.
Killian, Lewis M. “Black Power and White Reactions: The Revitalization of Race-Thinking in the United States.” American Academy of Political and Social Science 81 (March 1981): 42-54.
Kornweibel, Theodore, Jr. “Railroads, Race and Reparations.” Souls 5 (Summer 2003): 23-32.
Lancaster, Donald Aquinas Jr. “The Alchemy and Legacy of the United States of America’s Sanction of Slavery and Segregation: A Property Law and Equitable Remedy Analysis of African American Reparations.” Howard Law Journal 43 (Winter 2000): 171-212. (link to a gated article)
Lecky, Robert S. and H. Elliott Wright, eds. Black Manifesto: Religion, Racism, and Reparations. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1969. (link to book at article)
Longwood, Merle. “Justice and Reparation: The Black Manifesto Reconsidered.” Lutheran Quarterly 27 (1975): 203-219.
Marable, Manning. “Should America Apologize for Slavery?” About Time 26 (February-March 1998): 15+.
Matsuda, Mari. “Looking to the Bottom: Critical Legal Studies and Reparations. In Crenshaw, Kimberle, ed. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: New Press, 1995. Link to Hein online article
Magee, Rhonda V. “The Master’s Tools, from the Bottom Up: Responses to African-American Reparations Theory in Mainstream and Outsider Remedies Discourse.” Virginia Law Review 79 (May 1993): 863-916.
Michelson, Melissa R. “The Black Reparations Movement: Public Opinion and Congressional Policy Making.” Journal of Black Studies 32 (May 2002): 574-587.
Monteiro, Anthony. “Race, Class and Civilization: On Clarence J. Munford’s Race and Reparations.” Black Scholar 29 (Spring 1999): 46-59.
Morsell, John A. “The NAACP and Reparations.” Crisis 77 (1970): 93-95, 101.
Munford, Clarence J. Race and Reparations: A Black Perspective for the 21st Century. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1996. (link to book @ Amazon)
Nixon, Ron. “Peculiar Profits: The Reparations Movement Pursues Slavery’s Blue Chip Beneficiaries.” Mother Jones 30 (July 2000): 17-18.
Ojo, Tokunbo. “Talkin’ ’bout Those Reparations: There’s More than One Way to Look at Compensation for Slavery.” Toward Freedom 48 (February 2000): 20+.
Peoples, Betsy. “A Simple Gesture.” Emerge 8 (September 1997): 42-44+
Reed, Adolph. “The Case against Reparations.” The Progressive 64 (December 2000): 15-17.
Robinson, Randall. The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks. New York: Dutton, 2000. Link to Amazon book
Schedler, George. Racist Symbols and Reparations: Philosophical Reflections on Vestiges of the American Civil War. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998. Link to Amazone book
Schuchter, Arnold. Reparations: The Black Manifesto and Its Challenge to White America. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970. Link to Amazon book.
Simon, Julian and Larry Neal. “A Calculation of the Black Reparations Bill.” Review of Black Political Economy 4 (Winter 1974): 75+. Link to gated article
Singer, Alan. “19th Century New York Complicity with Slavery: Documenting the Case for Reparations.” Negro Educational Review 54 (January-April 2003): 17-29.
Turner, James. “Callie House: The Pursuit of Reparations as a Means for Social Justice.” Journal of African American History 91 (Summer 2006): 305-310.
Westley, Robert. “Fourteenth Amendment Jurisprudence: Race and the Rights of Groups.” Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, 1993.
_____. “Many Billions Gone: Is it Time to Reconsider the Case for Black Reparations.” Boston College Law Review 40 (December 1998): 429-476.
Winbush, Raymond A., ed. Should America Pay?: Slavery and the Raging Debate Over Reparations. New York: Amistad, 2003.
Yamamoto, Eric K. “What’s Next? Japanese American Redress and African American Reparations.” Amerasia Journal 25 (1999): 1-17.
Allen, Ernest and Robert Chrisman. “Ten Reasons to Response to David Horowitz.” The Black Scholar, 31.2 (2001): 49-55.
America, Richard F. “Racial Inequality, Economic Dysfunction, and Reparations.” Challenge, 38.6 (1995): 40-45.
_____. “Reparations and Higher Education,” Black Issues in Higher Education, 16.23 (6 Jan. 2000): 104.
_____. “Reparation and Public Policy.” Review of Black Political Economy, 26.3 (1999): 77-83.
_____. “Reparations and the Competitive Advantage of Inner Cities.” Review of Black Political Economy, 24., no.2/3 (Winter 1996): 193-206.
Bacon, Jacqueline. “Reading the Reparations Debate.” Quarterly Journal of Speech89 (2003): 171-95.
_____. “Reparations and the Media: A Slanted Arena for Discussions of Slavery Recompense.” Extra! May/June 2002: 21-22.
Bolner, James. “Toward a Theory of Racial Reparations.” Phylon, 29.1 (1968): 41-47.
Bowman, Karlyn. “Opinion Pulse.” The American Enterprise, 12.5 (2001): 60-62.
Berry, Mary F. “Reparations for Freedmen, 1980-1916: Fraudulent Practices or Justice Deferred?” The Journal of Negro History, 57.3 (1972): 219-230.
Brophy, Alfred L. “Losing the [Understanding of the Importance of] Race, Evaluating the Significance of Race and the Utility of Reparations.” Texas Law Review, volume 80, number 4 (March 2002): 911-932.
CoatesTa-Nehisi. “The Case for Reparations.” The Atlantic. May 21, 2014).
_____. “How Racism Invented Race in America The Case for Reparations: a Narrative Bibliography.”The Atlanic (June 23, 2014).
“David Horowitz’s ‘Ten Reasons Why Reparations for Slavery is a Bad Idea for Blacks – and Racist Too.” The Black Scholar, volume 31, number 2 (Summer 2002): 48.
Davis, Adrenne D. “The Case for Reparations to African Americans.” Human Rights Brief: Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, A Legal Resource for the International Human Rights Community, volume 7, issue 8 (Spring 2000): 3+.
Hopkins, Kevin. “Forgive U.S. Our Debts? Righting the Wrongs of Slavery.” Georgetown Law Journal, volume 89, number 8 (August 2001): 2531-2556.
Loury, Glenn C. “Little to Gain, Much to Lose.” Black Issues in Higher Education, volume 18, number 19 (November 8, 2001): 136.
McWhorter, John. “Blood Money.” The American Enterprise, volume 12, number 5 (July/August 2001): 18-22.
Michelson, Melissa R. “The Black Reparation Movement: Public Opinion and Congressional Policy Making.” The Journal of Black Studies, volume 32, number 5 (May 2002): 574-587.
Monteiro, Anthony. “Review Essay: Race, Class and Civilization: On Clarence J. Munford’s Race and Reparations.” The Black Scholar, volume 29, number 1 (Spring 1999): 46-59.
Mosley, Albert. “Affirmative Action As a Form of Reparation.” The University of Memphis Law Review, volume 33, number 2 (Winter 2003): 353-365.
Murdock, Deroy. “A Bean of Counting Nightmare to Avoid.” The American Enterprise, volume 12, number 5 (July/August 2001): 22-23.
_____. “Should the U.S. Pay Reparations for Slavery?” Vital Speeches of the Day, volume 68, number 13 (April 15, 2002): 404-406.
Ogletree, Charles. “Reparations for the Children of Slaves: Litigating the Issues.” The University of Memphis Law Review, volume 33, number 2 (Winter 2003): 245-264.
Okediji, Moyo. “On Reparations Exodus and Embodiment.” African Arts, volume 31, number 2 (Spring 1998): 8-10.
Osabu-Kle, Daniel Tetteh. “The African Reparation Cry: Rationale, Estimate, Prospects, and Strategies.” Journal of Black Studies, volume 30, number 3 (January 2000): 331-350.
“Reparations Movement: Should Payments Be Made for Historical Wrongs?” CQ Researcher, volume 11, number 24 (June 22, 2001): 529-552.
Roach, Ronald. “Fighting the Good Fight.” Black Issues in Higher Education, volume 18, number 19 (November 8, 2001): 28-31.
_____. “Moving Towards Reparations.” Black Issues in Higher Education, volume 18, number 19 (November 8, 2001): 20-24.
Robinson, Randall. “America’s Debt to Blacks.” Nation, volume 270, number 10 (March 13, 2000): 5-6.
Simon, Julian, and Larry Neal. “A Calculation of the Black Reparations Bill.” The Review of Black Political Economy, volume 4, number 2 (Winter 1974): 75-86.
- Bittker, Boris I. The Case for Black Reparations. New York: Random House, 1973.
- Brophy, Alfred L. Reparations: Pro & Con. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Brooks, Roy L. Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
- Hakim, Ida. The Debtors: Whites Respond to the Call for Black Reparations. Red Oak, Ga: CURE, 2005.
- Henry, Charles P. Long Overdue: The Politics of Racial Reparations. New York: New York University Press, 2007.
- Flaherty, Peter, and John Carlisle. The Case against Slave Reparations. Falls Church, Va: National Legal and Policy Center, 2004.
- Martin, Michael T., and Marilyn Yaquinto. Redress for Historical Injustices in the United States: On Reparations for Slavery, Jim Crow, and Their Legacies. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.
- Miller, Jon, and Rahul Kumar. Reparations: Interdisciplinary Inquiries. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Torpey, John. Making Whole What Has Been Smashed: On Reparations Politics. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2006.
- University of Kansas. Symposium: Law, Reparations & Racial Disparities. Lawrence, Kan: University of Kansas, Kansas Law Review, 2009.
- Walters, Ronald W. African Americans and Movements for Reparations: Past, Present, and Future. Dedicated to the Memory and Scholarly Legacy of Dr. Ronald W. Walters. Washington, D.C.: Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2012.